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GEO5

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Internal Stability

Geo-reinforcement force

Determination of forces in geo-reinforcements is performed by splitting and assigning the calculated earth pressure to individual layers. Each reinforcement accommodates part of the active pressure, which acts in the corresponding layer, i.e. force developed in the reinforcement Fx = ΣTa,hor. The calculation is always performed for flat terrain. Influence of broken terrain is considered as an additional surcharge (increase of geostatic stress σz). Earth pressure is considered as an active for extensible reinforcements (Standard - straight slip surface, AASHTO - Extensible, FHWA NHI-10-024), or as a combination of pressures for inextensible reinforcements (AASHTO - Inextensible, JTGD30 - 2004 Highway China Code, TB 10025 Railway China Code, BS 8006 - Coherent Gravity Method). Slip surface has a different shape (straight, broken) according to the selected standard of calculation.

Forces transmitted by individual reinforcements

Reinforcement strength check

Long-term design strength of geo-reinforcement Rt is calculated from the input parameters of the geo-reinforcement:

where:

Rt

-

long-term design strength of reinforcement

Tult

-

short-term characteristic strength of geo-reinforcement

RFCR

-

reduction coefficient of long-term deformation of reinforcement (determined based on geo-reinforcement lifetime)

RFD

-

reduction coefficient of durability of reinforcement (determined based on soil pH)

RFID

-

reduction coefficient of failure of reinforcement when inserting into the soil (determined based on the grain sizes of soil)

FSUNC

-

overall coefficient of model uncertainty

Reinforcement bearing capacity against pull-out

Strength of reinforcement against pull-out from the earth body is calculated from the input parameters of the geo-reinforcement and the normal force acting in the direction normal to its area:

where:

Tp

-

bearing capacity against tearing

L

-

reinforcement length (from front face to its end)

Ci

-

coefficient of interaction between soil and geo-reinforcement

σz

-

vertical geostatic stress

φ

-

angle of internal friction of soil

Verification of bearing capacity of reinforcement against pull-out can be carried out according to the factor of safety or the theory of limit states.