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Table of Ultimate Friction Factors for Dissimilar Materials

Values of the angle δ for different interfaces (according to the NAVFAC standards)

Interface material

Friction factor tg(δ)

Friction angle δ [°]

Mass concrete on the following foundation materials:

Clean sound rock

0.70

35

Clean gravel, gravel-sand mixtures, coarse sand

0.55 - 0.6

29 - 31

Clean fine to medium sand, silty medium to coarse sand, silty or clayey gravel

0.45 - 0.55

Clean fine sand, silty or clayey fine to medium sand

0.35 - 0,45

19 - 24

Fine sandy silt, nonplastic silt

0.30 - 0.30

17 - 19

Very stiff and hard residual or preconsolidated clay

0.40 - 0.50

22 - 26

Medium stiff and stiff clay and silty clay

0.30 - 0.35

17 - 19

Steel sheet piles against the following soils:

Clean gravel, gravel-sand mixtures, well-graded rock fill with spalls

0.40

22

Clean sand, silty sand-gravel mixture, single size hard rock fill

0.30

17

Silty sand, gravel or sand mixed with silt or clay

0.25

14

Fine sandy silt, nonplastic silt

0.20

11

Formed concrete or concrete sheet piling against the following soils:

Clean gravel, gravel-sand mixture, well-graded rock fill with spalls

0.40 - 0.50

22 - 26

Clean sand, silty sand-gravel mixture, single size hard rock fill

0.30 - 0.40

17 - 22

Silty sand, gravel or sand mixed with silt or clay

0.30

17

Fine sandy silt, nonplastic silt

0.25

14

Various structural materials:

Dressed soft rock on dressed soft rock

0.70

35

Dressed hard rock on dressed soft rock

0.65

33

Dressed hard rock on dressed hard rock

0.55

29

Masonry on wood (Gross grain)

0.50

26

Steel on steel at sheet pile interlocks

0.30

17